Economia Comportamental e Seguros de Automóveis: O Papel dos Vieses e Heurísticas



Artigo principal Conteúdo

Pedro Brandão Graminha
Luís Eduardo Afonso

Resumo

Objetivo: este trabalho analisa como os efeitos de enquadramento, de ancoragem e de certeza podem influenciar o comportamento do consumidor de seguro de automóveis. Métodos: foi realizado um experimento, com a aplicação presencial de seis versões de um questionário com 14 questões, para 163 respondentes de uma instituição de ensino. Foram elaboradas perguntas visando a analisar a existência dos efeitos de ancoragem, de certeza e de enquadramento, além do efeito de franquia (presente em diversos ramos de seguros). O arcabouço teórico do trabalho é a economia comportamental. Resultados: as pessoas mais jovens, os(as) solteiros(as) e os homens possuem maior propensão ao risco. Embora os achados de forma geral corroborem as evidências da literatura, os resultados sobre o efeito de certeza foram contrários ao esperado. O pagamento da franquia aumentou a aversão ao risco dos respondentes. Conclusões: a existência de vieses e heurísticas pode fazer com que a aquisição de seguros ocorra de forma não ótima. O conhecimento do processo de tomada de decisão é importante para as seguradoras e para os consumidores. Também é relevante para os reguladores, com a finalidade de subsidiar medidas que visem à eficiência do mercado e à proteção dos consumidores, por meio do desenho de uma arquitetura de escolhas adequada.



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Graminha, P. B., & Afonso, L. E. (2021). Economia Comportamental e Seguros de Automóveis: O Papel dos Vieses e Heurísticas. Revista De Administração Contemporânea, 26(5), e200421. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2022200421.en
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