Políticas Nudge no Contexto da COVID-19: Uma Ação Necessária ou Dilema Ético?



Artigo principal Conteúdo

Ana Luize Correa
Maria Clara Figueiredo Dalla Costa Ames
Marcello Beckert Zappellini

Resumo

Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo é discutir os nudges no contexto pandêmico do SARS-CoV-2, retomando algumas reflexões sobre a ética e revisando-as sob o novo cenário imposto pela pandemia. Marco teórico: o arcabouço teórico da Economia Comportamental fundamentou a análise dos nudges, enquanto o utilitarismo, a deontologia e a ética das virtudes foram as teorias morais clássicas utilizadas para a reflexão dos aspectos éticos. Métodos: fizemos uma revisão da literatura sobre nudges e pesquisamos os últimos estudos sobre este assunto aplicados à mitigação da COVID-19. Na seção de discussão ética, referências clássicas são utilizadas para articular nudges com as seguintes teorias morais: utilitarismo, deontologia e ética das virtudes. Resultados: os resultados indicam que a tendência em termos de intervenção é enviar mensagens de nudge e aumentar o comprometimento, principalmente para direcionar um comportamento desejado e aumentar a adesão a políticas. Muitos experimentos não mostraram resultados significativos e alguns inconvenientes na aplicação de políticas indicam que os nudges devem ser revistos em cenários de crise, como em pandemias. Na discussão ética, três teorias morais podem justificar alguns aspectos dos nudges. Conclusões: este artigo mostrou algumas falhas e inconsistências tanto na teoria do nudge quanto na sua aplicação durante a pandemia, as quais podem ser resolvidas através da discussão de aspectos éticos. Sugere-se que conectar estes problemas com as teorias morais pode ser uma solução para alguns impasses encontrados.



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Correa, A. L., Ames, M. C. F. D. C., & Zappellini, M. B. (2022). Políticas Nudge no Contexto da COVID-19: Uma Ação Necessária ou Dilema Ético?. Revista De Administração Contemporânea, 26(5), e210033. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2022210033.en
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