As Facetas da Comodificação de Mulheres: Violência no Contexto Universitário de Administração



Artigo principal Conteúdo

Aline dos Santos Barbosa
Marcello Romani-Dias
Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

Resumo

Contexto: a violência contra a mulher está presente nos mais diversos grupos sociais, especialmente na América Latina, por ser uma das regiões mais violentas contra a mulher, com alto número de estupros, assédios e assassinatos por causa do gênero. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo é aprofundar o entendimento sobre a maneira pela qual situações violentas contra as mulheres ocorrem no contexto universitário brasileiro e as diferentes facetas da objetificação e da comodificação. Método: realizamos entrevistas em profundidade com 15 moças e 5 rapazes estudantes universitários de cursos de Administração. Resultados: nossos achados sugerem a ampla objetificação e comodificação da mulher no contexto universitário e suas consequências negativas, como a auto-objetificação em seus aspectos pessoais e profissionais, demonstradas por relatos de incerteza em relação ao seu corpo, no exercício das atividades de liderança e na escolha de profissão. Ocorre a comodificação: (a) do corpo da mulher; (b) de sua sexualidade; (c) de sua moralidade; e finalmente (b) de seus sentimentos. Conclusão: contribuímos teoricamente para expandir o conhecimento da relação entre objetificação e comodificação. Em termos empíricos e gerenciais, apresentamos insights para instituições educacionais combaterem a discriminação contra a mulher.



Histórico de Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.


Detalhes do artigo

Como Citar
Barbosa, A. dos S., Romani-Dias, M., & Veludo-de-Oliveira, T. M. (2020). As Facetas da Comodificação de Mulheres: Violência no Contexto Universitário de Administração. Revista De Administração Contemporânea, 24(6), 582-599. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2020190378
Seção
Artigos

Referências

Academy of Management. (2020). Divisions & Interest Groups. Retrieved from: http://aom.org/FAQs/Membership/What-are-Divisions---Interest-Groups.aspx.
Associação Nacional de Pós-graduação de Pesquisa em Administração. (2020). Organizational Studies Division. Retrieved from: http://www.anpad.org.br/eventos.php?cod_evento=1&cod_evento_edicao=106&cod_edicao_subsecao=1692
Azevedo, L. H. (2016). Gênero, violência e universidade. In C. M. Cardoso (Org.). Universidade, poder e direitos humanos (1st ed, p. 117-140). São Paulo: Cultura Acadêmica.
Bandeira, L. M. (2017). Trotes, assédios e violência sexual nos campi universitários no Brasil. Revista Gênero, 17(2), 49-79. https://doi.org/10.22409/rg.v17i2.942
Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139-168. https://doi.org/10.1086/209154
Belk, R. W., Wallendorf, M., & Sherry Jr, J. F. (1989). The sacred and the profane in consumer behavior: Theodicy on the odyssey. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(1), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.1086/209191
Carter, A. (1978). The Sadeian Woman: And the ideology of pornography. New York: Pantheon Books
Corbin, J.M., & Strauss, A.L. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage: Thousand Oaks.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Dworkin, A. (1981). Men possessing women. New York: Perigee.
Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. (2019). Anuário Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Retrieved from: http://www.forumseguranca.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Anuario-2019-FINAL-v3.pdf.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Harrison, K. (2005). Throwing like a girl: Self-objectification predicts adolescent girls’ motor performance. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 29, 79–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723504269878
Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(2), 173-206. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x
Fredrickson, B. L., Roberts, T. A., Noll, S. M., Quinn, D. M., & Twenge, J. M. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 269-284. http://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.75.1.269.
Friese, S. (2014). Qualitative data analysis with ATLAS.ti. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gapinski, K. D., Brownell, K. D., & LaFrance, M. (2003). Body objectification and fat talk: Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance. Sex Roles, 48(9-10), 377-388. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023516209973
Gardner, C. B. (1980). Passing by: Street remarks, address rights, and the urban female. Sociological Inquiry, 50(3-4), 328-356. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1980.tb00026.x
Gervais, S. J., Vescio, T. K., & Allen, J. (2011). When what you see is what you get: The consequences of the objectifying gaze for women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(1), 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684310386121
Gill, R. (2008). Empowerment/sexism: Figuring female sexual agency in contemporary advertising. Feminism & Psychology, 18(1), 35-60. http://doi.org/10.1177/0959353507084950
Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergence vs forcing. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology press.
Glaser, B. G., Strauss, A. L. & Strutzel, E. (1968). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Nursing research, 17(4), 364. Retrieved from: https://journals.lww.com/nursingresearchonline/Citation/1968/07000/The_Discovery_of_Grounded_Theory__Strategies_for.14.aspx
Godinho, C. C. P. S., Trajano, S. S., Souza, C. V., Medeiros, N. T., Catrib, A. M. F., & Abdon, A. P. V. (2018). A violência no ambiente universitário. Revista Brasileira em Promoção da Saúde, 31(4), 1-8. http://doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2018.8768
Gray, K., Knobe, J., Sheskin, M., Bloom, P., & Barrett, L. F. (2011). More than a body: Mind perception and the nature of objectification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(6), 1207-1220. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025883
Hartsock, N. C. M. (2004). Women and/as Commodities: a brief meditation. Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cashiers De La Femme, 23(3-4), 14-17. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1009.3518&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252-264. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr1003_4
Haslanger, S. (2012). On being objective and being objectified (pp. 35-39). In Resisting reality: Social construction and social critique. Oxford University Press.
Heflick, N. A., & Goldenberg, J. L. (2009). Objectifying Sarah Palin: Evidence that objectification causes women to be perceived as less competent and less fully human. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(3), 598-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.008
Heflick, N. A., & Goldenberg, J. L. (2014). Seeing eye to body: The literal objectification of women. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 225-229. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721414531599
Hegel, G. W. F. (1969) Science of Logic. (A. V. Miller, Trad.). London: Allen & Unwin. (Original work published in 1812-1816).
Henriot, C. (2012). Supplying female bodies: Labor migration, sex work, and the commoditization of women in colonial Indochina and contempory Vietnam. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 7(1), 1-9. Http://doi.org/10.1525/vs.2012.7.1.1
Hill, M. S., & Fischer, A. R. (2008). Examining objectification theory: Lesbian and heterosexual women’s experiences with sexual- and self-objectification. The Counseling Psychologist, 36(5), 745-777. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000007301669
Hirschman, E. C. (1991). Exploring the dark side of consumer behavior: Methaphor and ideology in prostitution and pornography. In J. A. Costa (Ed.), GCB - Gender and consumer behavior (vol. 1, pp. 303-314). Salt Lake, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
Hirschman, E. C., & Hill, R. P. (1999). On human commoditization: A model based upon African-American slavery. In Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 26 pp. 394-398). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
Hirschman, E. C., & Hill, R. P. (2000). On human commoditization and resistance: A model based upon Buchenwald concentration camp. Psychology& Marketing, 17(6), 469-491. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(200006)17:6%3C469::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-3
Hirschman, E. C., & Stern, B. B. (1994). Women as commodities: prostitution as depicted in the blue angel, pretty baby, and pretty woman (Vol. 21, pp. 576-581). Lancaster: ACR North American Advances.
Holanda, S.B. (2015). Raízes do Brasil. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
Joy, A., Belk, R., & Bhardwaj, R. (2016). Judith Butler on performativity and precarity: Exploratory thoughts on gender and violence in India. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(15–16), 1739–1745. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1076873
Kopytoff, I. (1986). The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process. In The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective, edit by Arjun Appadurai (pp. 64-92). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.
Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2007). An array of qualitative data analysis tools: A call for data analysis triangulation. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(4), 557-584. http://doi.org/10.1037/1045-3830.22.4.557
Lei n. 11.340, de 7 de Agosto, 2006. (2006). Cria mecanismos para coibir a violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher, nos termos do § 8º do art. 226 da Constituição Federal, da Convenção sobre a Eliminação de Todas as Formas de Discriminação contra as Mulheres e da Convenção Interamericana para Prevenir, Punir e Erradicar a Violência contra a Mulher; dispõe sobre a criação dos Juizados de Violência Doméstica e Familiar contra a Mulher; altera o Código de Processo Penal, o Código Penal e a Lei de Execução Penal; e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União. Brasília, DF.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Linhares, Y., & Laurenti, C. (2018). Uma análise de relatos verbais de alunas sobre situações de assédio sexual no contexto universitário. Perspectivas em Análise do Comportamento, 9(2), 234-247. https://doi.org/10.18761/PAC.2018.n2.08
Locke, K. (2001). Grounded theory in management research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Loughnan, S., Pina, A., Vasquez, E. A., & Puvia, E. (2013). Sexual objectification increases rape victim blame and decreases perceived suffering. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(4), 455-461. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684313485718
Machin, D., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2016). Sound, music and gender in mobile games. Gender & Language, 10(3), 412-432. http://doi.org/10.1558/genl.v10i3.32039
Martin, J. A., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (2010). Rewiring: Cross-business-unit collaborations in multi-business organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 265–301. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.49388795
Martin, P. Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender & Society, 30(1), 30-43. http://doi.org/10.1177/0891243215612708
Marx, K. (1936). Capital: A critique of political economy. New York: The Modern Library.
Max, W., Rice, D. P., Finkelstein, E., Bardwell, R. A., & Leadbetter, S. (2004). The economic toll of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Violence and Victims, 19(3), 259-272. http://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.19.3.259.65767
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Monto, M. A., & Julka, D. (2009). Conceiving of sex as a commodity: A study of arrested customers of female street prostitutes. Western Criminology Review, 10(1), 1-14. Retrieved from: https://westerncriminology.org/documents/WCR/v10n1/Monto.pdf
Moore, A. R. (2008). Types of violence against women and factors influencing intimate partner violence in Togo (West Africa). Journal of Family Violence, 23(8), 777-783. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-008-9203-6
Morris, K. L., Goldenberg, J., & Boyd, P. (2018). Women as animals, women as objects: Evidence for two forms of objectification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(9), 1302-1314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218765739.
Nussbaum, M. C. (1999). Sex and social justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.
Puvia, E., & Vaes, J. (2015). Promoters versus victims of objectification: Why women dehumanize sexually objectified female targets. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 28(1), 63–93. Retrieved from: https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychologie-sociale-2015-1-page-63.htm
Quinn, D. M., Kallen, R. W., Twenge, J. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). The disruptive effect of self-objectification on performance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(1), 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00262.x
Rubini, M., Roncarati, A., Ravenna, M., Albarello, F., Moscatelli, S., & Semin, G. R. (2017). Denying psychological properties of girls and prostitutes: The role of verbal insults. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 36(2), 226-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X16645835
Rudman, L. A., & Fetterolf, J. C. (2014). Gender and sexual economics: Do women view sex as a female commodity? Psychological Science, 25(7), 1438-1447. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614533123.
Saguy, T., Quinn, D. M., Dovidio, J. F., & Pratto, F. (2010). Interacting like a body: Objectification can lead women to narrow their presence in social interactions. Psychological Science, 21(2), 178–182. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797609357751 
Sharp, L. A. (2000). The commodification of the body and its parts. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29(1), 287-328. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.287
Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2002). A test of objectification theory in adolescent girls. Sex Roles, 46(9-10), 343-349. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020232714705
Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Szymanski, D. M., Moffitt, L. B., & Carr, E. R. (2011). Sexual objectification of women: Advances to theory and research 1ψ7. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(1), 6-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000010378402
United Nations. (2017). From commitment to action: Policies to end violence against women in Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from: http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/rblac/es/home/library/womens_empowerment/del-compromiso-a-la-accion--politicas-para-erradicar-la-violenci.html
Valeri, V. (1994). Buying women but not selling them: gift and commodity exchange in Huaulu alliance. Man, 29(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.2307/2803508
Van Binsbergen, W. M., & Geschiere, P. (Eds.). (2005). Commodification: Things, agency, and identities: (The social life of things revisited) (Vol. 8). Münster: LIT Verlag.
Varman, R., Goswami, P., & Vijay, D. (2018). The precarity of respectable consumption: normalising sexual violence against women. Journal of Marketing Management, 34(11-12), 932-964. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2018.1527387
Ward, L. M. (2016). Media and sexualization: State of empirical research, 1995–2015, The Journal of Sex Research, 53(4-5), 560-577. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2016.1142496
Williams, C. C. (2002). A critical evaluation of the commodification thesis. The Sociological Review, 50(4), 525-542. Retrieved from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2286998